History of the castle
Boskovštejn became popular among archeologists, which were exploring the colonies of first farmers in the you stone age (5000-2000 before Christ). The research of Jaroslav Pollard and František Vildomec proved, that there were 8 locations of colonies with linear ceramics. The sorted archeological material was studied by the representatives of our but also the international archeology. Besides that, there were coincidental discoveries. Those revealed a bell-shaped cups from the end of young stone age and also a halštat culture from the iron age.
The first written note about Boskovštejn is from 1586, when Bedřich from Náchod gave Boskovštějn with its stronghold to his wife Kateřina. Boskovštejn in 1608-1613 was owned by Jaroslav Bouchval from Náchod. In 1615, the castle, the brewery and the Jiřice village was sold to Petr Vok from Náchod na Žeroticích. By the 1619, the evangelic aristocrat Zikmund from Ditrichštejn bought the castle. The emperor gave Boskovštejn to the count Jíří from Náchod in 1630. Then the castle was inherited by his son, Leopold Ferdinand, the count of Náchod. Because of the feudal development, the small czech royalty slowly disappeared. In the 1659, Boskovštejn was unoccupied. Ferdinand Leopold of Náchod then sold the castle in 1660 to Zdenek Bohuslav Dubský of Třebomyslice, who bought also the whole Hostim. Starting then, Boskovštejn was managed from Hostim. There was also a pub and four cottages belonging to Boskovštejn, where the toll od one grešle was payed. Therefore, they named it Grešlové Mýto. Even in 1672, Zdeněk Dubský of Třebomyslice is stated as the owner of Boskovštejn and Jiřice. In that time, Boskovštejn was a small village, Jiřice were more of a parceled land. In the 1680 Zdeněk Dubský intabuated Boskovštejn to Ludvík Raduit de Souches, along with a mill, sawmill and a deer-park. After Ludvík’s death, Boskovštejn belongs to his nephew, who then intabuated Boskovštejn to a royal adviser Josef, the count of Gatteburg. In that time, changes in the land were made. Forrest became smaller. The land was made a field, part of the land was sold, the deer-park was closed.
A brief history of a road bicycle
Charles Baron von Drais de Sauerbun /1785-1851/ presents in Paris the first machine with a human power and a steering front wheel.
Kirkpatrick Macmillan-stroj powered by pedals and drawbars.
Pierre Michaux makes the first Boneshakers in the Paris workshop. It was a machine with same-sized wheels, which were powered by pedals on the front wheel.
1868 31st May
The first bicycle short-distance race in Paris, in St. Cloud park, 200 m long.
Steel wires and rims were used on Boneshakers. A rubber hoops was used for the first time instead of the steel one.
1869 7th November
A first long-distance race between Paris and Roun, 128 km long.
Frenchman Eugene Mayer creates a first high bike. The wheels with pedals on the front wheel, with a big size difference between the front and the rear wheel. It starts the era of this type of a bike.
In the following year 1870, France stopped the evolution of a road bike because of a war.
The central development is now in England, Coventry, then in the USA.
The beginning of The Facile and Singer Xtra Ordinary production - high bikes with leverage.
The era of Tricycles and Quadricycles starts.
H.J. Lawson creates his first Bicyclette - a machine power by a rear-wheel chain.
The beginning of the Star machine production - a bike with a bigger rear wheel, powered by a leverage and chains.
Hillman, Herbert and Cooper come with a Kangaroo machine to the market. Still a high bike, but with smaller chained power.
Start of an era with lower bikes of todays type. Powered by a rear-wheel chain, with one gear and a rubber hoop. Its a gold era of bicycles, with many ideas and innovations.
The american Eagle is made. With a front and rear high powered wheel.
The Scottish veterinarian J.B. Dunlop comes with a air-filled tire and gets a patent. A complete transfer to a tire from a whoop within 4 years. In the 1892, all bikes have air-filled tires.
First attempts at multi-gear road bikes.
Experimets with the usage of new materials for bike frames, using wood, aluminum and bamboo.
The start of a Johnson derailleur production.